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Now showing items 1 - 16 of 28

  • Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis: review of the 1022 cases reported worldwide.

    Castellana, Giuseppe   Castellana, Giorgio   Gentile, Mattia   Castellana, Roberto   Resta, Onofrio  

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare disease characterised by the widespread intra-alveolar accumulation of minute calculi called microliths. It is caused by mutation of the SLC34A2 gene encoding the type IIb sodium phosphate cotransporter in alveolar type II cells. The present study explores the epidemiological, familial, genetic, clinical, diagnostic, radiological and therapeutic aspects with the aim of contributing to a better understanding of this uncommon disease.We searched articles on PAM published up to December 2014 and 544 papers were found, accounting for 1022 cases.PAM is present in all continents and in many nations, in particular in Turkey, China, Japan, India, Italy and the USA. Familiality is frequent. The clinical course is not uniform and the causes of this clinical variability seem to be largely nongenetic. The optimal diagnostic procedure is the association of chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) with bronchoalveolar lavage, but a chest radiograph may suffice in families in which a case has already been diagnosed. Moreover, chest radiography and HRCT allow the classification of the evolutionary phase of the disease and its severity. At present lung transplantation is the only effective therapy. However, better knowledge of the gene responsible offers hope for new therapies. Copyright =C2=A9ERS 2015.
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  • Clinical features and outcome of 6 new patients carrying de novo &ITKCNB1 &ITgene mutations

    Marini, Carla   Romoli, Michele   Parrini, Elena   Costa, Cinzia   Mei, Davide   Mari, Francesco   Parmeggiani, Lucio   Procopio, Elena   Metitieri, Tiziana   Cellini, Elena   Virdo, Simona   De Vita, Dalila   Gentile, Mattia   Prontera, Paolo   Calabresi, Paolo   Guerrini, Renzo  

    Objective: To describe electroclinical features and outcome of 6 patients harboring KCNB1 mutations.& para;& para;Methods: Clinical, EEG, neuropsychological, and brain MRI data analysis. Targeted next-generation sequencing of a 95 epilepsy gene panel.& para;& para;Results: The mean age at seizure onset was 11 months. The mean follow-up of 11.3 years documented that 4 patients following an infantile phase of frequent seizures became seizure free; the mean age at seizure offset was 4.25 years. Epilepsy phenotypes comprised West syndrome in 2 patients, infantile-onset unspecified generalized epilepsy, myoclonic and photosensitive eyelid myoclonia epilepsy resembling Jeavons syndrome, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, and focal epilepsy with prolonged occipital or clonic seizures in each and every one. Five patients had developmental delay prior to seizure onset evolving into severe intellectual disability with absent speech and autistic traits in one and stereotypic hand movements with impulse control disorder in another. The patient with Jeavons syndrome evolved into moderate intellectual disability. Mutations were de novo, 4 missense and 2 nonsense, 5 were novel, and 1 resulted from somatic mosaicism.& para;& para;Conclusions: KCNB1-related manifestations include a spectrum of infantile-onset generalized or focal seizures whose combination leads to early infantile epileptic encephalopathy including West, Lennox-Gastaut, and Jeavons syndromes. Long-term follow-up highlights that following a stormy phase, seizures subside or cease and treatment may be eased or withdrawn. Cognitive and motor functions are almost always delayed prior to seizure onset and evolve into severe, persistent impairment. Thus, KCNB1 mutations are associated with diffuse brain dysfunction combining seizures, motor, and cognitive impairment.
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  • Interstitial 1q43-q43 deletion with left ventricular noncompaction myocardium.

    Kanemoto, Nobuko   Horigome, Hitoshi   Nakayama, Junko   Ichida, Fukiko   Xing, Yanlin   Buonadonna, Antonia Lucia   Kanemoto, Katsuyoshi   Gentile, Mattia  

    We describe a newborn infant with del(1)(q) syndrome, presenting with rare congenital cardiomyopathy and left ventricular noncompaction myocardium (LVNC), as well as typical clinical features such as facial dysmorphism and psychomotor retardation. Although conventional chromosome banding at 850 bands per haploid set indicated a karyotype of 46,XX,add(1)(q42.3), FISH analysis confirmed that the deleted portion was limited to within q43, and q44 was preserved. Therefore, the chromosome constitution is 46,XX,del(1)(q43q43), which has not previously been reported in the literature. Screening for the mutations in the candidate genes for LVNC, i.e. G4.5, CSX, Dystrobrevin, FKBP12, and Desmin, produced negative results. Interestingly, the deleted portion includes the locus for the cardiac ryanodine receptor type 2 gene (RyR2), that selectively binds to the FKBP12 homolog, FKBP12.6. The relationship between this rare myocardial abnormality and deletion of q43 is currently unknown and awaits further accumulation of cases with the same chromosomal aberration.
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  • Universal neonatal hearing screening: the Siena (Italy) experience on 19,700 newborns.

    De Capua, Bruno   Costantini, Daniele   Martufi, Carla   Latini, Giuseppe   Gentile, Mattia   De Felice, Claudio  

    BACKGROUND: Hearing loss (HL) is likely to be the most common congenital abnormality in humans, with a reported prevalence of 1 to 3 per 1000 live births. Early detection and intervention is critical to prevent the adverse consequences of a delayed diagnosis on speech, language and cognitive development. As 33-50% of all congenital HLs cannot be detected in a selective hearing risk, use of universal neonatal hearing screening (UNHS) programs is expanding.AIMS: We tested the value of a UNHS protocol, based on a two-stage strategy of Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions (TEOAEs) in all infants, followed by diagnostic auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing in those infants who did not meet TEOAE pass criteria and those infants at high risk for hearing loss.METHODS: TEOAES (292 DP Echoport OAE Analyzer) served as the initial screen, followed by diagnostic ABR (Amplaid MK12) in newborns that did not meet pass criteria for TEOAEs. Additionally, all infants at high audiologic risk according to the Joint Committee on Infant Hearing received a diagnostic ABR evaluation. Of 21,125 total live births, 19,700 were tested (April 1, 1998-July 31, 2006). Accuracy of the UNHS strategy in predicting congenital HL was evaluated by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value.RESULTS: Prevalence for all HLs in the neonatal period was 1.78/1000 l.b. (35/19,700), with bilateral HL in 1.42/1000 l.b. (28/19,700) [low risk rate: 0.43/1000 l.b. (8/18,356); high risk infants rate: 14.88/1000 l.b. (20/1344)]. All the HL infants were diagnosed <3 and received intervention <6 months age. ROC curves results showed 100% sensitivity (95% C.I.: 89.0-100) and 99.3% specificity (95% C.I.: 99.2-99.4) of the two-stage strategy in detecting congenital HLs [area under the ROC curve: 0.997 (95% C.I.: 0.995-0.997)].CONCLUSIONS: (1) The epidemiology of congenital HLs widely justifies UNHS; (2) a two-stage TEOAE and diagnostic ABR screening for congenital HL is feasible, minimally invasive and accurate in the early detection of congenital HL; and (3) a congenital HL screening strategy based exclusively on the use of TEOAEs should always consider the possibility of false negative cases.
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  • Clinical biomarkers for cancer recognition and prevention:A novel approach with optical measurements

    Latini, Giuseppe   De Felice, Claudio   Barducci, Alessandro   Dipaola, Lucia   Gentile, Mattia   Andreassi, Maria Grazia   Correale, Mario   Bianciardi, Giorgio  

    Cancer is the most important cause of death worldwide, and early cancer detection is the most fundamental factor for efficacy of treatment, prognosis, and increasing survival rate. Over the years great effort has been devoted to discovering and testing new biomarkers that can improve its diagnosis, especially at an early stage. Here we report the potential usefulness of new, easily applicable, non-invasive and relatively low-cost clinical biomarkers, based on abnormalities of oral mucosa spectral reflectance and fractal geometry of the vascular networks in several different tissues, for identification of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer carriers as well for detection of other tumors, even at an early stage. In the near future the methodology/technology of these procedures should be improved, thus making possible their applicability worldwide as screening tools for early recognition and prevention of cancer.
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  • Autism spectrum disorders in XYY syndrome: two new cases and systematic review of the literature.

    Margari, Lucia   Lamanna, Anna Linda   Craig, Francesco   Simone, Marta   Gentile, Mattia  

    UNLABELLED: Abnormalities of the sex chromosomes (47, XXY, 47 XYY, 45,X/46,XY mosaicism) are frequently associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), but the male predisposition to these disorders has not been clearly explained. Previously, the role of the X chromosome was considered important in the ASD mainly because autistic symptoms were detected in genetic syndromes involving X chromosome (fragile X syndrome, Rett syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome). Instead, few studies have analyzed the possible role of the Y chromosome in the ASD. This study explores the role of the Y chromosome in ASD through a systematic literature review about the association between ASD and XYY syndrome and a description of two new cases with this association. The literature review considered studies published in peer-reviewed journals, included in the MEDLINE and PubMed databases, that examined the association between ASD and XYY syndrome. Few studies reported the occurrence of ASD in children with XYY karyotype and the majority of them did not reported a well-defined autism diagnostic category associated with an extra Y chromosome, but several clinical conditions that are generically described as language and social impairment.; CONCLUSION: This study underlines the underestimated role of the Y chromosome in ASD, and we postulate that all the ASD associated with the XYY karyotype may presumably fall within mild degree of ASD as in our cases.=20
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  • Genetic Associations of Alexithymia in Predicting Interferon-Induced Depression in Chronic Hepatitis C.

    Porcelli, Piero   Cozzolongo, Raffaele   Cariola, Filomena   Giannuzzi, Vito   Lanzilotta, Elsa   Gentile, Mattia   Sonnante, Gabriella   Leandro, Gioacchino  

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that alexithymia is associated with gene polymorphisms that regulate the availability of serotonin (5-HT) in the brain. Since the 5-HT network is involved in interferon (IFN)-induced depression, this paper aimed to investigate the role of alexithymia and the functional gene variants of the 5-HT1A receptor (HTR1A) and the 5-HT transporter (5-HTTLPR) in induction of depression during antiviral treatment.; METHODS: The depressive symptoms of 130 consecutive patients with chronic hepatitis C and no current psychopathology were measured during treatment with IFN and ribavirin (6-12 months) and at a 6-month follow-up. At baseline, alexithymia and 2 genotypes (5-HTTLPR and HTR1A) were also assessed.; RESULTS: Patients with homozygosity for HTR1A-G and 5-HTTLPR long alleles had significantly higher levels of alexithymia. After controlling for sociodemographic and disease-related factors, alexithymia and HTR1A-G polymorphism, both separately (20-22%) and jointly (14-16%), significantly and independently predicted the development of IFN-induced depression.; CONCLUSIONS: Subjects carrying HTR1A-G and 5-HTTLRP double long alleles are more vulnerable to alexithymia. Also patients with a higher level of alexithymia and the HTR1A-G gene variant are more vulnerable to experiencing IFN-induced depressive symptoms. The clinical implications of targeting alexithymia and HTR1A receptors as a possible treatment option for mood disorders should be investigated in further studies. =C2=A9 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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  • Involvement of PTEN mutations in the genetic pathways of colorectal cancerogenesis

    Guanti, Ginevra   Resta, Nicoletta   Simone, Cristiano   Cariola, Filomena   Demma, Ignazio   Fiorente, Paola   Gentile, Mattia  

    So far, somatic mutations of the PTEN gene have been found in several different neoplasms but not in colorectal tumours. As exons 7 and 8 of the PTEN coding sequence contain an (A)6 repeat and mononucleotide repeat sequences are targets for mutations in tumours with microsatellite instability (MI), we screened a panel of sporadic colorectal tumours exhibiting MI to test whether PTEN gene repeats are frequently mutated in MI+ colorectal cancers. Of 32 cases studied, seven mutations were found in six (18.75%) patients, as a PTEN biallelic frameshift mutation was observed in one case, with consequent loss of function of the gene. Loss of heterozygosity, evaluated in the remaining five cases using the microsatellite marker D10S541, was detected in two of three informative samples. To further address the role of the PTEN gene in MI+ colorectal cancer, in the six patients with mutated PTEN, we analysed the mononucleotide repeats of six other genes: BAX, hMSH3, hMSH6, TGFbRII, IGFIIR and APC. In two of these six patients, mutations of the TGFbRII gene only were present, indicating that PTEN may have a role in the mutator pathway of colorectal tumorigenesis. Overall, these results indicate that PTEN mutations are selected for during tumorigenesis in MI+ colorectal tumours. The mutation of both PTEN alleles and evidence that the PTEN protein is expressed in normal colon suggest that loss of function of this gene could play a direct role in tumorigenesis.
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  • Rfx6 directs islet formation and insulin production in mice and humans RID B-4719-2009 RID F-8060-2011

    Smith, Stuart B.   Qu, Hui-Qi   Taleb, Nadine   Kishimoto, Nina Y.   Scheel, David W.   Lu, Yang   Patch, Ann-Marie   Grabs, Rosemary   Wang, Juehu   Lynn, Francis C.   Miyatsuka, Takeshi   Mitchell, John   Seerke, Rina   Desir, Julie   Eijnden, Serge Vanden   Abramowicz, Marc   Kacet, Nadine   Weill, Jacques   Renard, Marie-Eve   Gentile, Mattia   Hansen, Inger   Dewar, Ken   Hattersley, Andrew T.   Wang, Rennian   Wilson, Maria E.   Johnson, Jeffrey D.   Polychronakos, Constantin   German, Michael S.  

    Insulin from the beta-cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans controls energy homeostasis in vertebrates, and its deficiency causes diabetes mellitus. During embryonic development, the transcription factor neurogenin 3 (Neurog3) initiates the differentiation of the beta-cells and other islet cell types from pancreatic endoderm, but the genetic program that subsequently completes this differentiation remains incompletely understood. Here we show that the transcription factor Rfx6 directs islet cell differentiation downstream of Neurog3. Mice lacking Rfx6 failed to generate any of the normal islet cell types except for pancreatic-polypeptide-producing cells. In human infants with a similar autosomal recessive syndrome of neonatal diabetes, genetic mapping and subsequent sequencing identified mutations in the human RFX6 gene. These studies demonstrate a unique position for Rfx6 in the hierarchy of factors that coordinate pancreatic islet development in both mice and humans. Rfx6 could prove useful in efforts to generate beta-cells for patients with diabetes.
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  • Combining Point-of-Care Diagnostics and Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) to Combat the COVID-19 Pandemic

    Yang, Ting   Gentile, Mattia   Shen, Ching-Fen   Cheng, Chao-Min  

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  • Serotonin gene polymorphisms and lifetime mood disorders in predicting interferon-induced depression in chronic hepatitis C.

    Cozzolongo, Raffaele   Porcelli, Piero   Cariola, Filomena   Giannuzzi, Vito   Lanzilotta, Elsa   Gentile, Mattia   Sonnante, Gabriella   Leandro, Gioacchino  

    BACKGROUND: IFN-induced depression is a suitable model for investigating vulnerability to depression. We aimed at investigating the role of two vulnerability factors, lifetime mood disorder (LMD) and 5-HT-related gene polymorphisms in treated patients with infection by Hepatitis C Virus (HCV).; METHODS: Depressive symptoms of 130 consecutive HCV patients with no current psychopathology were measured during treatment with interferon and ribavirin. At baseline, LMD and 3 genotypes (5-HTTLPR, HTR1A, and TPH2) were also assessed.; RESULTS: Subgroups of 43 patients with LMD, 96 with HTR1A-G allele, and 12 with both LMD and HTR1A-G homozigosity scored significantly higher to depression compared to the remaining patients during antiviral therapy. At the multiple regression analysis, LMD and HTR1A-G, whether separately or combined together, explained a similar amount of 10-22% of depression score variance, after controlling for the associated variables (age and gender).; LIMITATIONS: HCV patients referred to a tertiary care center are not representative of all patients with chronic hepatitis C. Mediating factors, including proinflammatory cytokines and other potentially relevant gene polymorphisms, could not be evaluated. Patients were not stratified by degree of liver inflammation. LMD diagnoses were not cross-checked with medical records and IFN-induced depression was measured with a self-report scale only.; CONCLUSIONS: History of mood disorders and HTR1A G allele variation, the C-1019G polymorphism of the transcriptional control region of the 5-HT1A receptor, independently predicted the incidence of IFN-induced depression in HCV patients, whether separately or jointly considered and although not reciprocally associated. Copyright =C2=A9 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  • Identification of Two New Mutations in TRPS 1 Gene Leading to the Tricho-Rhino-Phalangeal Syndrome Type I and III

    Piccione, Maria   Niceta, Marcello   Di Fiore, Antonella   Cariola, Filomena   Gentile, Mattia   Corsello, Giovanni  

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  • Peritoneal Mesothelioma with Residential Asbestos Exposure. Report of a Case with Long Survival (Seventeen Years) Analyzed by Cgh-Array

    Serio, Gabriella   Pezzuto, Federica   Marzullo, Andrea   Scattone, Anna   Cavone, Domenica   Punzi, Alessandra   Fortarezza, Francesco   Gentile, Mattia   Buonadonna, Antonia Lucia   Barbareschi, Mattia   Vimercati, Luigi  

    Malignant mesothelioma is a rare and aggressive tumor with limited therapeutic options. We report a case of a malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) epithelioid type, with environmental asbestos exposure, in a 36-year-old man, with a long survival (17 years). The patient received standard treatment which included cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). Methods and Results: Molecular analysis with comparative genomic hybridization (CGH)-array was performed on paraffin-embedded tumoral samples. Multiple chromosomal imbalances were detected. The gains were prevalent. Losses at 1q21, 2q11.1q13, 8p23.1, 9p12p11, 9q21.33q33.1, 9q12q21.33, and 17p12p11.2 are observed. Chromosome band 3p21 (BAP1), 9p21 (CDKN2A) and 22q12 (NF2) are not affected. Conclusions: the defects observed in this case are uncommon in malignant peritoneal mesothelioma. Some chromosomal aberrations that appear to be random here, might actually be relevant events explaining the response to therapy, the long survival and, finally, may be considered useful prognostic factors in peritoneal malignant mesothelioma (PMM).
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  • Copy number variants and infantile spasms: evidence for abnormalities in ventral forebrain development and pathways of synaptic function

    Paciorkowski, Alex R.   Thio, Liu Lin   Rosenfeld, Jill A.   Gajecka, Marzena   Gurnett, Christina A.   Kulkarni, Shashikant   Chung, Wendy K.   Marsh, Eric D.   Gentile, Mattia   Reggin, James D.   Wheless, James W.   Balasubramanian, Sandhya   Kumar, Ravinesh   Christian, Susan L.   Marini, Carla   Guerrini, Renzo   Maltsev, Natalia   Shaffer, Lisa G.   Dobyns, William B.  

    Infantile spasms (ISS) are an epilepsy disorder frequently associated with severe developmental outcome and have diverse genetic etiologies. We ascertained 11 subjects with ISS and novel copy number variants (CNVs) and combined these with a new cohort with deletion 1p36 and ISS, and additional published patients with ISS and other chromosomal abnormalities. Using bioinformatics tools, we analyzed the gene content of these CNVs for enrichment in pathways of pathogenesis. Several important findings emerged. First, the gene content was enriched for the gene regulatory network involved in ventral forebrain development. Second, genes in pathways of synaptic function were overrepresented, significantly those involved in synaptic vesicle transport. Evidence also suggested roles for GABAergic synapses and the postsynaptic density. Third, we confirm the association of ISS with duplication of 14q12 and maternally inherited duplication of 15q11q13, and report the association with duplication of 21q21. We also present a patient with ISS and deletion 7q11.3 not involving MAGI2. Finally, we provide evidence that ISS in deletion 1p36 may be associated with deletion of KLHL17 and expand the epilepsy phenotype in that syndrome to include early infantile epileptic encephalopathy. Several of the identified pathways share functional links, and abnormalities of forebrain synaptic growth and function may form a common biologic mechanism underlying both ISS and autism. This study demonstrates a novel approach to the study of gene content in subjects with ISS and copy number variation, and contributes further evidence to support specific pathways of pathogenesis. European Journal of Human Genetics (2011) 19, 1238-1245; doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2011.121; published online 22 June 2011
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  • High Wilms' tumour gene (WT1) expression and low mitotic count are independent predictors of survival in diffuse peritoneal mesothelioma

    Scattone, Anna   Serio, Gabriella   Marzullo, Andrea   Nazzaro, Pietro   Corsi, Fabrizio   Cocca, Maria Pia   Mattoni, Marilena   Punzi, Alessandra   Gentile, Mattia   Buonadonna, Antonia Lucia   Pennella, Antonio  

    Aims: To evaluate the use of the Wilms' tumour gene (WT1) marker and histomorphological parameters as indicators of prognosis in malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM). Methods and results: Histological samples of 31 MPM were stained immunohistochemically for the WT1 protein. The results were quantified by recording the number of stained nuclei, and then correlated with patient survival. Statistical correlation was evaluated for tumour histotype, mitotic count (MC), nuclear grade (NG), necrosis, lymphoid response (grade of inflammation) and desmoplasia with regard to survival. Highgrade histology (solid epithelioid, pure sarcomatoid or biphasic tumours), high NG, MC more than five per 10 per high- power field (HPF), necrosis and desmoplasia were associated with a significantly worse prognosis. Patients with MPM with low WT1 expression (<= 25% of positive cells) survived for a significantly shorter time compared to those with high WT1 expression (> 25% of positive cells) (P = 0.0001). The 50% survival time of subjects with low WT1 expression was 2.9 months [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.05-3.71] versus 31.5 months (95% CI: 20.4-42.5) for those with high WT1 expression. On multivariate analysis, WT1 and MC were found to be associated independently with survival (P = 0.002; P = 0.005, respectively). Conclusions: Our study suggests that low WT1 expression and high MC may be indicative of an unfavourable prognosis in patients with advanced malignant peritoneal mesothelioma.
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  • Molecular cytogenetic characterization and genotype/phenotype analysis in a patient with a de novo 8p23.2p23.3 deletion/12p13.31p13.33 duplication

    Margari, Lucia   Di Cosola, Maria Luisa   Buttiglione, Maura   Pansini, Angela   Buonadonna, Antonia Lucia   Craig, Francesco   Cariola, Filomena   Petruzzelli, Maria Giuseppina   Gentile, Mattia  

    Genomic copy number imbalances are being increasingly identified as an important cause of intellectual disability (ID) and behavioral disturbances. This article reports the clinical features, and long term follow-up of a patient with neurodevelopmental, cognitive, and behavioral abnormalities associated with facial dysmorphism, CNS anomalies, and epilepsy. The karyotype was normal; array CGH testing revealed a de novo cryptic aberration with a terminal 8p23.2p23.3 deletion, and a concomitant 12p13.31p13.33 duplication, of 6.86?Mb, and 8.49?Mb, respectively. Our patient clinical features are compared to those of partial 8 monosomy and/or partial 12p trisomy cases reported in literature, in order to establish genotypephenotype correlations. For some features, for example, electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities and epilepsy, both abnormalities seem to make a contribution, while most phenotypic traits have been assigned to 8p monosomy or to 12p trisomy, contributing to a tentative phenotype map for partial monosomy of the short arm of chromosome 8, and trisomy of the short arm of chromosome 12. (C) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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