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Now showing items 1 - 16 of 957112

  • Annual ice volume changes 1976-2008 for the New Zealand Southern Alps

    Chinn, T.   Fitzharris, B. B.   Willsman, A.   Salinger, M. J.  

    New Zealand has a long, continuous record of annual end-of-summer-snowline measurements for a set of Southern Alps 'index glaciers' from 1977 to present. These index glaciers are used to estimate annual mass balance and volume water equivalent changes for the over 3000 glaciers on the Southern Alps. Two methods are employed to monitor ice volume changes. Method I deals with the rapid to normal response time glaciers, which tend to be small to medium in size. It uses mass balance gradients and glacier areas to convert changes in snowlines to changes in ice volume water equivalent. Ice volume changes for the period 1976-2008 are calculated for each index glacier, and then extrapolated to most other glaciers of the Southern Alps, using the New Zealand glacier inventory. Method II deals with 12 protracted response glaciers, which tend to be large in size. These have been slow in reacting to a long-term regional warming trend. Instead they still largely retain the ablation areas of a century ago and are in a state of disequilibrium with the present climate. These valley glaciers have recently sustained substantial ice losses that are not able to be detected using Method I. Mass balance deficits and ablation from the 12 large protracted response glaciers are estimated using a geodetic approach based on topographic and lake changes determined from repeated surveys. Results show that estimated ice volume (in water equivalents) for the Southern Alps has decreased from 54.5 km(3) in 1976 to 46.1 km(3) by 2008. This equates to a rate of -0.3 km(3)a(-1) over the last three decades, but this is considerably less than the rate of ice volume loss estimated for the previous 100 years. More than 3000 small and medium-size glaciers account for just 29% of the overall ice volume loss from the Southern Alps, while 71% of the loss occurs from the 12 large protracted response glaciers. Terminus calving contributes 0.8 km(3) and down-wasting of ice tongues in the ablation zone contributes 5.2 km(3). Some preliminary results show that ice volume changes are related to changes in circulation over the New Zealand region. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  • Remote Sensing of Seasonal Snow Cover in the Mountains of New Zealand Using Satellite Imagery

    Fitzharris, B. B.   McAlevey, B. P.  

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  • Glacier balance fluctuations and atmospheric circulation patterns over the Southern Alps, New Zealand

    Fitzharris, B. B.   Chinn, T. J.   Lamont, G. N.  

    The links between climate and glacier change are investigated by examining the relationships between atmospheric circulation and glacier balance changes over a 17 year period. Altitudes of the end-of-summer snowlines made on some 48 index glaciers provide surrogates for mass balance, and mean atmospheric pressure maps were computer-generated for the south-west Pacific from long-period meteorological station data. Pressure data are separated into accumulation and ablation seasons. The results show that atmospheric circulation patterns exert a strong control on glacier mass balance, with positive balances associated with anomalous south to south-west flow and negative balances associated with enhanced north to north-east flow. (C) 1997 by the Royal Meteorological Society.
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  • Behaviour of New Zealand Glaciers and Atmospheric Circulation Changes over the Past 130 years

    Fitzharris, B. B.   Hay, J. E.   Jones, P. D.  

    There is renewed interest as to the impact of future climate change on temperate alpine glaciers because of their role as indicators of past and ongoing changes, and due to their possible involvement in sea-level rise. Substantial changes in termini of New Zealand glaciers since the nineteenth century are compared with variations in atmospheric circulation patterns over the southwest Pacific region. Reconstructed sea-level pressure patterns are used back to 1911. Atmospheric circulation indices obtained from pressure differences between appropriate stations are extended back to the 1860s. Circulation anomalies are examined for winter (related to glacier accumulation), and for summer (related to glacier ablation). Behaviour of glacier termini is found to be strongly linked with circulation changes, especially in summer. Latitudinal shifts in the southern margin of the subtropical high pressure zone are identified as important. An advance of some glaciers since 1980 is consistent with circulation changes over the New Zealand region induced by two large El Ni?o events.
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  • Avalanche Tarns

    Fitzharris, B. B.   Owens, I. F.  

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  • Inclusion of Ginseng in Kanzoshashinto

    KOIKE, Hiroshi   YAMADA, Takahiro   HORIBA, Yuko   WATANABE, Kenji  

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  • Inclusion of Ginseng in Kanzoshashinto

    KOIKE, Hiroshi; YAMADA, Takahiro; HORIBA, Yuko; WATANABE, Kenji  

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  • Study Report on Mongolian Traditional Medicine

    SEINO, Mitsunori   SHIREN, Hideaki   MARUYAMA, Noriko   INOKUMA, Haruka   NAMBA, Toshimune   YOSHIDA, Takuji   YAMADA, Masaki  

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  • Study Report on Mongolian Traditional Medicine

    SEINO, Mitsunori; SHIREN, Hideaki; MARUYAMA, Noriko; INOKUMA, Haruka; NAMBA, Toshimune; YOSHIDA, Takuji; YAMADA, Masaki  

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  • Circadian rhythms of micturition during jet lag

    ITO, Kakeru; YASUDA, Miho; MAEDA, Yuki; FUSTIN, Jean-Michel; YAMAGUCHI, Yoshiaki; KONO, Yuka; NEGORO, Hiromitsu; KANEMATSU, Akihiro; OGAWA, Osamu; DOI, Masao; OKAMURA, Hitoshi  

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  • Supply Chain Optimization: A Survey

    Hashimoto, Hideki   Kubo, Mikio  

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  • Possible Pathophysiological Mechanism for Chilblains

    TERASAWA   Katsutoshi  

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  • Clinical Manifestations of Chukenchuto sho

    CHINO, Atsushi   TSUJI, Masanori   SUMIKOSHI, Makoto   KOBAYASHI, Toru   YAMAMOTO, Shohaku   TERASAWA, Katsutoshi  

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  • Clinical Manifestations of Chukenchuto sho

    CHINO, Atsushi; TSUJI, Masanori; SUMIKOSHI, Makoto; KOBAYASHI, Toru; YAMAMOTO, Shohaku; TERASAWA, Katsutoshi  

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  • Possible Pathophysiological Mechanism for Chilblains

    TERASAWA, Katsutoshi  

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  • Postgraduate Japanese Medical Education in Kampo Medicine

    KOBAYASHI, Seiichi; TAKAYAMA, Shin; ISHIBASHIC, Satoru  

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