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Now showing items 1 - 16 of 30


    [Problem] To provide a liquid chemical used for forming a water repellent protective membrane, said liquid chemical being used in a wafer washing method in which a washing device that includes a vinyl chloride resin as a wetted member is used. [Solution] A liquid chemical is used, said liquid chemical including at least one compound selected from the group consisting of: an alkoxysilane represented by general formula [1]; a sulfonic acid represented by general formula [2]; an anhydrate of said sulfonic acid; a salt of said sulfonic acid; and a sulfonic acid derivative represented by general formula [3]. Also included in the liquid chemical is a dilution solvent having at least one compound selected from the group consisting of a hydrocarbon, ether, and thiol. [1] (R1) aSi (H)b (OR2)4-a-b [2] R3 – S(=O)2OH [3] R3 – S (=O)2 O-Si (H)3-c (R4)c
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    [Problem] To provide a highly palatable extracted tea beverage having an effectively enhanced freshly-brewed flavor. [Solution] The issue is solved by an extracted tea beverage containing γ-glutamyl-valyl-glycine.
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  • Role of genetic variations of chitinase 3-like 1 in bronchial asthmatic patients

    Abe, Kazuyuki   Nakamura, Yutaka   Yamauchi, Kohei   Maemondo, Makoto  

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  • Relationships among apple fruit abscission, source strength, and cultivar

    Iwanami, Hiroshi   Moriya-Tanaka, Yuki   Honda, Chikako   Wada, Masato   Moriya, Shigeki   Okada, Kazuma   Haji, Takashi   Abe, Kazuyuki  

    Fruit thinning is an essential part of the commercial production of quality apples. A portion of the excessive fruitlets is abscised, or shed, physiologically as a self-regulatory mechanism: however, the degree of abscission varies depending on the environmental conditions and cultivars. The number of abscised fruitlets within a cluster is influenced by the number of leaves in the cluster. In some cultivars, the fewer leaves there are in a cluster, the larger the number of fruitlets undergo abscission is. Conversely, the growth rate of a fruit cluster is marginally influenced by the number of leaves in the cluster and appears constant for each cultivar. The constant growth rates of fruit clusters indicate the source strength, which supports the growth of individual fruitlets (sink organ) on the tree. The cultivar differences in the percentage of fruitlet abscission were highly correlated with the source strength of the cultivars, indicating that the rate of abscised fruitlets was determined by the source strength of the cultivars. The number of days between full bloom and diminishing growth of abscising fruitlets was also correlated with the source strength. Therefore, a cultivar with low source strength is prone to abscising many fruitlets at an early date compared with one with high source strength. The source strength of a cultivar, therefore, can be a useful index for selecting cultivars characterized by easy and early abscission. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  • Impact of the genetic variants of GLCCI1 on clinical features of asthmatic patients

    Chiba, Shinji   Nakamura, Yutaka   Mizuno, Tomoki   Abe, Kazuyuki   Horii, Yosuke   Nagashima, Hiromi   Sasaki, Nobuhito   Kanno, Hiroyuki   Tanita, Tatsuo   Yamauchi, Kohei  

    BackgroundSeveral gene variants are associated with a response to an inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) treatment in patients with bronchial asthma. A variant of the glucocorticoid-induced transcript 1 (GLCCI1) genes has previously been associated with decreased lung function improvement upon treatment with ICSs in patients with bronchial asthma. Another report has also demonstrated that this genetic biomarker did not influence the change in flow volume in 1 second. However, no studies have considered the treatment content and the GLCCI1 variants. We were able to determine the relationship between the pulmonary function and clinical features and the variant of the GLCCI1 in Japanese asthmatic patients receiving long-term ICS treatment. Materials and methodsIn this study, 405 patients with bronchial asthma, who were receiving ICS and living in Japan, were recruited, genotyped and underwent pulmonary function tests. To identify the GLCCI1 protein expression cells, endobronchial biopsy specimens were examined. ResultsWe found that the pulmonary function was not significantly different in the homozygotes compared to the wild types. Also, the homozygotes increased the risk of a sustained step-up of the asthma treatment when compared to the wild type and heterozygotes. GLCCI1-positive cells were localized to the bronchial epithelial cells. The amount of GLCCI1 protein that cultured epithelial cells harboring GLCCI1 variants produced was less than the GLCCI1 wild type in the presence of a corticosteroid. ConclusionsA worsening of pulmonary function caused by GLCCI1 variants could be prevented due to recently used medications based on new action mechanisms.
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  • Evaluation and inheritance of crown gall resistance in apple rootstocks

    Iwanami, Hiroshi   Takahashi, Sae   Kotoda, Nobuhiro   Suzaki, Kouichi   Abe, Kazuyuki  

    To identify sources of resistance to crown gall disease and to investigate its inheritance pattern to descendants, we assessed the degree of resistance among seven apple rootstocks of 'JM5', 'JM7', 'M.9', 'M.27', 'G.65', Malus prunifolia 'Mo 84a', and 'Morioka Seishi', two wild Malus accessions of Malus sieboldii 'Sanashi 63' and 'Mo-15', and its hybrids (147 individuals). The inoculation was tested using two Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains of Peach CG8331 (biovar 2) and ARAT-001 (biovar 1) as inocula. M. sieboldii'Sanashi 63' and 'Mo-15' did not show any galls at the inoculated sites six months after inoculation with suspensions of the strain Peach CG8331. Galls developed on the other rootstocks with a frequency from 0.31 to 0.82. In an inoculation test with strain ARAT-001 as the inoculum, no galls were formed on M. sieboldii 'Mo-15', and the frequency of M. sieboldii'Sanashi 63' was low, 0.19. The frequency in 'G.65' inoculated with strain ARAT-001 was much lower than that with strain Peach CG8331, whereas that in other rootstocks showed similar or higher frequency compared to strain Peach CG8331. The results suggested that there is an interaction (specificity) for the frequency of gall occurrence between A. tumefaciens strain and apple rootstocks. Based on the results of our study, M. sieboldii'Sanashi 63' and 'Mo-15' were regarded as the most resistant genotypes to the virulent strains of A. tumefaciens used in our study. Resistant hybrids with no galls were found in progeny derived from a cross between 'JM7' x 'Sanashi 63' against strains of A. tumefaciens; numbers of hybrids were 19 (16%) and 5 (4%) against strains Peach CG8331 and ARAT-001, respectively. In F, progeny between 'JM5' x 'G.65', plants with no galls were not observed. These results indicate that crown gall resistance in M. sieboldii 'Sanashi 63' is heritable through its descendants.
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  • Genetic mapping of the crown gall resistance gene of the wild apple Malus sieboldii

    Moriya, Shigeki   Iwanami, Hiroshi   Takahashi, Sae   Kotoda, Nobuhiro   Suzaki, Kouichi   Yamamoto, Toshiya   Abe, Kazuyuki  

    Crown gall, caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens, causes severe damage to apple saplings resulting in weak growth and loss of commercial value. Developing molecular markers linked to crown gall resistance genes, and establishing a marker-assisted selection (MAS) for such a trait would be an effective way to improve rootstock breeding for crown gall resistance. The wild apple Malus sieboldii Sanashi 63 carries the crown gall resistance gene Cg effective against the A. tumefaciens strain Peach CG8331 (biovar 2). Applying the genome scanning approach on the mapping population JM7 (cgcg) x Malus sieboldii Sanashi 63 (Cgcg), Cg was mapped on the linkage group (LG) 2. The constructed linkage map of LG 2 of Sanashi 63 spans 59.8 cM and has an average marker density of 3.5 cM per marker. The 191 bp allele of the simple sequence repeat (SSR) NZmsEB119405 co-segregated perfectly with Cg in a segregating population of 119 individuals. Quantitative trait loci, accounting for 75.3% to 84.3% of phenotypic variation were detected in the same position. Testing eight additional rootstocks with the NZmsEB119405 SSR marker revealed that the 191 bp allele is also present in crown gall-susceptible rootstock accessions. Only the markers CH03b01 and NZmsPal92 mapping at 0.9 and 4.3 cM from Cg, respectively, showed "private" alleles associated to Cg.
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  • Molecular Characterization of FLOWERING LOCUS T-Like Genes of Apple (Malusdomestica Borkh.)

    Kotoda, Nobuhiro   Hayashi, Hidehiro   Suzuki, Motoko   Igarashi, Megumi   Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi   Kidou, Shin-ichiro   Igasaki, Tomohiro   Nishiguchi, Mitsuru   Yano, Kanako   Shimizu, Tokurou   Takahashi, Sae   Iwanami, Hiroshi   Moriya, Shigeki   Abe, Kazuyuki  

    The two FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like genes of apple (Malusdomestica Borkh.), MdFT1 and MdFT2, have been isolated and characterized. MdFT1 and MdFT2 were mapped, respectively, on distinct linkage groups (LGs) with partial homoeology, LG 12 and LG 4. The expression pattern of MdFT1 and MdFT2 differed in that MdFT1 was expressed mainly in apical buds of fruit-bearing shoots in the adult phase, with little expression in the juvenile tissues, whereas MdFT2 was expressed mainly in reproductive organs, including flower buds and young fruit. On the other hand, both genes had the potential to induce early flowering since transgenic Arabidopsis, which ectopically expressed MdFT1 or MdFT2, flowered earlier than wild-type plants. Furthermore, overexpression of MdFT1 conferred precocious flowering in apple, with altered expression of other endogenous genes, such as MdMADS12. These results suggest that MdFT1 could function to promote flowering by altering the expression of those genes and that, at least, other genes may play an important role as well in the regulation of flowering in apple. The long juvenile period of fruit trees prevents early cropping and efficient breeding. Our findings will be useful information to unveil the molecular mechanism of flowering and to develop methods to shorten the juvenile period in various fruit trees, including apple.
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  • Identification of QTLs for Flesh Mealiness in Apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.)

    Moriya, Shigeki   Kunihisa, Miyuki   Okada, Kazuma   Iwanami, Hiroshi   Iwata, Hiroyoshi   Minamikawa, Mai   Katayose, Yuichi   Matsumoto, Toshimi   Mori, Satomi   Sasaki, Harumi   Matsumoto, Takashi   Nishitani, Chikako   Terakami, Shingo   Yamamoto, Toshiya   Abe, Kazuyuki  

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  • A root-localized gene in normal apples is ectopically expressed in aerial parts of columnar apples

    Wada, Masato   Iwanami, Hiroshi   Moriya, Shigeki   Hanada, Toshio   Moriya-Tanaka, Yuki   Honda, Chikako   Shimizu, Taku   Abe, Kazuyuki   Okada, Kazuma  

    The columnar apple 'McIntosh Wijcik', which is a mutation of 'McIntosh' shoots, has short internodes, thick stems, upright growth, poor lateral branches, and increased spur density. These columnar traits are controlled by a single dominant gene known as Co. We previously identified a putative dioxygenase gene (designated as 91071) as a promising Co candidate (expressed in the shoot apices of 'McIntosh Wijcik'). However, tissue expression and function of the 91071 gene in noncolumnar apples is still not clear. In this study, we used reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to demonstrate that the 91071 gene is mainly expressed in the roots of noncolumnar apples, whereas it is also expressed in shoot apices and leaves of columnar apples. In situ hybridization revealed that the 91071 gene is expressed at the primordium of lateral roots and root tips of both noncolumnar and columnar apple trees and in the shoot meristem and leaf primordium in the columnar apple 'McIntosh Wijcik'. Grafting experiments of noncolumnar scion onto columnar rootstocks revealed that the columnar growth phenotype is not transmissible from rootstock to scion. These results indicated that ectopic expression of the 91071 gene in aerial parts causes columnar growth, whereas the expression of the 91071 gene in roots does not produce columnar growth. Furthermore, transgenic apples overexpressing the 91071 gene showed larger median adventitious root length and higher median number of lateral roots than control apples. Our result suggests that the 91071 gene may be related to root development.
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  • A root-localized gene in normal apples is ectopically expressed in aerial parts of columnar apples

    Wada, Masato   Iwanami, Hiroshi   Moriya, Shigeki   Hanada, Toshio   Moriya-Tanaka, Yuki   Honda, Chikako   Shimizu, Taku   Abe, Kazuyuki   Okada, Kazuma  

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  • Mitigation of tight junction protein dysfunction in lung microvascular endothelial cells with pitavastatin

    Suzuki, Rioto   Nakamura, Yutaka   Chiba, Shinji   Mizuno, Tomoki   Abe, Kazuyuki   Horii, Yosuke   Nagashima, Hiromi   Tanita, Tatsuo   Yamauchi, Kohei  

    Background: Statin use in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with coexisting cardiovascular disease is associated with a reduced risk of exacerbations. The mechanisms by which statin plays a role in the pathophysiology of COPD have not been defined. To explore the mechanisms involved, we investigated the effect of statin on endothelial cell function, especially endothelial cell tight junctions. Method: We primarily assessed whether pitavastatin could help mitigate the development of emphysema induced by continuous cigarette smoking (CS) exposure. We also investigated the activation of liver kinase B1 (LKB1)/AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling, which plays a role in maintaining endothelial functions, important tight junction proteins, zonula occludens (ZO)-1 and claudin-5 expression, and lung microvascular endothelial cell permeability. Results: We found that pitavastatin prevented the CS-induced decrease in angiomotin-like protein I (AmotL1)-positive vessels via the activation of LKB1/AMPK signaling and IFN-gamma-induced hyper permeability of cultured human lung microvascular endothelial cells by maintaining the levels of AmotL1, ZO-1, and claudin-5 expression at the tight junctions. Conclusion: Our results indicate that the maintenance of lung microvascular endothelial cells by pitavastatin prevents tight junction protein dysfunctions induced by CS. These findings may ultimately lead to new and novel therapeutic targets for patients with COPD. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • Breeding depression of red flesh apple progeny containing both functional MdMYB10 and MYB110a_JP genes

    Hamada, Yuka   Sato, Hideto   Otagaki, Shungo   Okada, Kazuma   Abe, Kazuyuki  

    In apple, two MYB transcription factors MdMYB10 (R-6:MdMYB10) and MdMYB110a have been shown to be responsible for the type 1 and type 2 red flesh traits, respectively. While type 1 red-fleshed apples are characterized by a red coloration not only in fruit flesh but also in vegetative tissues such as leaves and flowers, red pigmentation in type 2 red-fleshed apples is limited at the fruit flesh. We have searched cultivars containing both functional MdMYB10 and MdMYB110a and then tried to breed newcultivars containing both functional genes by cross-pollination of Geneva' (type 1) and Pink Pearl' (type 2). The cultivar having both genes should exhibit superior characteristics, such as a stable red flesh trait throughout fruit maturity, as type 1 reduces its colouring until maturity, whereas type 2 increases until maturity. We could not identify red-fleshed cultivars having both genes; moreover, only one plant of 80 F-1 progeny having both genes died in its juvenile stage. From the results, it was suggested that some sort of breeding depression must have occurred. We analysed the expression patterns of the genes within two F-1 plants having either MdMYB10 or MdMYB110a gene and found that the expression pattern of MdMYB110a was different from that observed in JPP35' (Jonathan'xPink Pearl'). The MdMYB110a gene in the No. 2804 F-1 plant derived from Pink Pearl'xGeneva' was expressed in the flesh from the beginning of the red coloration through maturity, and seemed to cause upregulation, not only the latter half, but also the first half of the gene in the anthocyanin pathway.
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  • Polyuronides Changes in Japanese and Chinese Pear Fruits during Ripening on the Tree.

    Moriguchi, Takaya   Abe, Kazuyuki   Tanaka, Keiichi   Sanada, Tetsuro  

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  • Fine mapping of the gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai)

    Terakami, Shingo   Moriya, Shigeki   Adachi, Yoshihiko   Kunihisa, Miyuki   Nishitani, Chikako   Saito, Toshihiro   Abe, Kazuyuki   Yamamoto, Toshiya  

    Black spot disease, which is caused by the Japanese pear pathotype of the filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata (Fries) Keissler, is one of the most harmful diseases in Japanese pear cultivation. We mapped a gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivar 'Kinchaku' (Aki gene) at the top of linkage group 11, similar to the positions of the susceptibility genes Ani in 'Osa Nijisseiki' and Ana in 'Nansui'. Using synteny-based marker enrichment, we developed novel apple SSR markers in the target region. We constructed a fine map of linkage group 11 of 'Kinchaku' and localized the Aid locus within a 1.5-cM genome region between SSR markers Mdo.chr11.28 and Mdo.chr11.34. Marker Mdo.chr11.30 co-segregated with Aki in all 621 F-1 plantlets of a 'Housui' x 'Kinchaku' cross. The physical size of the Aid region, which includes three markers (Mdo.chr11.28, Mdo.chr11.30, and Mdo.chr11.34), was estimated to be 250 Kb in the 'Golden Delicious' apple genome and 107 Kb in the 'Dangshansuli' Chinese pear genome. Our results will help to identify the candidate gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in Japanese pear.
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  • Apple FLOWERING LOCUS T proteins interact with transcription factors implicated in cell growth and organ development

    Mimida, Naozumi   Kidou, Shin-Ichiro   Lwanami, Hiroshi   Moriya, Shigeki   Abe, Kazuyuki   Voogd, Charlotte   Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika   Kotoda, Nobuhiro  

    Understanding the flowering process in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) is essential for developing methods to shorten the breeding period and regulate fruit yield. It is known that FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) acts as a transmissible floral inducer in the Arabidopsis flowering network system. To clarify the molecular network of two apple FT orthologues, MdFT1 and MdFT2, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify proteins that interact with MdFT1. We identified several transcription factors, including two members of the TCP (TEOSINTE BRANCHED I, CYCLOIDEA and PROLIFERATING CELL FACTORs) family, designated MdTCP2 and MdTCP4, and an Arabidopsis thaliana VOZ1 (Vascular plant One Zinc finger protein1)-like protein, designated MdVOZ1. MdTCP2 and MdVOZ1 also interacted with MdFT2 in yeast. The expression domain of MdTCP2 and MdVOZ1 partially overlapped with that of MdFT1 and MdFT2, most strikingly in apple fruit tissue, further suggesting a potential interaction in vivo. Constitutive expression of MdTCP2, MdTCP4 and MdVOZ1 in Arabidopsis affected plant size, leaf morphology and the formation of leaf primordia on the adaxial side of cotyledons. On the other hand, chimeric MdTCP2, MdTCP4 and MdVOZ1 repressors that included the ethylene-responsive transcription factors (ERF)-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) domain motif influenced reproduction and inflorescence architecture in transgenic Arabidopsis. These results suggest that MdFT1 and/or MdFT2 might be involved in the regulation of cellular proliferation and the formation of new tissues and that they might affect leaf and fruit development by interacting with TCP- and VOZ-family proteins.
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