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Now showing items 1 - 16 of 542211

  • Ethnopharmacology <sup>†sup>

    Taylor, David M.   Werneke, Ursula  

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    The present invention relates to an inflatable stand up paddle (SUP) board that has a separate air chamber formed therein in addition to a tube that forms a main body, thereby achieving more enhanced safety, and conforms to national safety regulations. The SUP board comprises: a main body that is formed in the shape of a long plate and has a plurality of shape maintaining lines, each having opposite ends coupled to upper and lower internal surfaces, and a first air injection port installed on the front side of the upper surface thereof; a side sheet air-tightly bonded to the main body along the outer periphery thereof to form an air tube along with the main body; and an inner tube that is provided on the outer periphery of the main body and has a second air injection port installed on the outer surface of the side sheet to allow air to be injected thereinto, wherein the outer surface of the inner tube is attached to the internal surface of the side sheet.
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  • Pathophysiology of Intestinal Na<sup>+sup>/H<sup>+sup> Exchange

    Michael A. Gurney   Daniel Laubitz   Fayez K. Ghishan   Pawel R. Kiela  

    Several members of the SLC9A family of Na + /H + exchangers are expressed in the gut, with varying expression patterns and cellular localization. Not only do they participate in the regulation of basic epithelial cell functions, including control of transepithelial Na + absorption, intracellular pH (pH i ), cell volume, and nutrient absorption, but also in cellular proliferation, migration, and apoptosis. In addition, they modulate the extracellular milieu to facilitate other nutrient absorption and to regulate the intestinal microbial microenvironment. Na + /H + exchangers are frequent targets of inhibition in gastrointestinal pathologies, either by intrinsic factors (eg, bile acids, inflammatory mediators) or infectious agents and associated microbial toxins. Based on emerging evidence, disruption of Na + /H + exchange activity via impaired expression or function of respective isoforms may contribute not only to local and systemic electrolyte imbalance, but also to the disease severity via multiple mechanisms. Here, we review the current state of knowledge about the roles Na + /H + exchangers play in the pathogenesis of disorders of diverse origin and affecting a range of gastrointestinal tissues.
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  • <sup>​40sup>Ar/<sup>39sup>Ar geochronology of terrestrial pyroxene

    Bryant Ware   Fred Jourdan  

    Abstract Geochronological techniques such as U/Pb in zircon and baddeleyite and 40 Ar/ 39 Ar on a vast range of minerals, including sanidine, plagioclase, and biotite, provide means to date an array of different geologic processes. Many of these minerals, however, are not always present in a given rock, or can be altered by secondary processes (e.g. plagioclase in mafic rocks) limiting our ability to derive an isotopic age. Pyroxene is a primary rock forming mineral for both mafic and ultramafic rocks and is resistant to alteration process but attempts to date this phase with 40 Ar/ 39 Ar has been met with little success so far. In this study, we analyzed pyroxene crystals from two different Large Igneous Provinces using a multi-collector noble gas mass spectrometer (ARGUS VI) since those machines have been shown to significantly improve analytical precision compared to the previous single-collector instruments. We obtain geologically meaningful and relatively precise 40 Ar/ 39 Ar plateau ages ranging from 184.6 ± 3.9 to 182.4 ± 0.8 Ma (2 σ uncertainties of ±1.8–0.4%) and 506.3 ± 3.4 Ma for Tasmanian and Kalkarindji dolerites, respectively. Those data are indistinguishable from new and/or published U-Pb and 40 Ar/ 39 Ar plagioclase ages showing that 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dating of pyroxene is a suitable geochronological tool. Scrutinizing the analytical results of the pyroxene analyses as well as comparing them to the analytical result from plagioclase of the same samples indicate pure pyroxene was dated. Numerical models of argon diffusion in plagioclase and pyroxene support these observations. However, we found that the viability of 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dating approach of pyroxene can be affected by irradiation-induced recoil redistribution between thin pyroxene exsolution lamellae and the main pyroxene crystal, hence requiring careful petrographic observations before analysis. Finally, diffusion modeling show that 40 Ar/ 39 Ar of pyroxene can be used as a powerful tool to date the formation age of mafic rocks affected by greenschist metamorphism and will likely play an important role in high temperature thermochronology.
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  • Entangled <sup>1sup>

    Lapadat, Judith C.  

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  • CoVaR <sup>†sup>

    Adrian, Tobias; Brunnermeier, Markus K.  

    We propose a measure of systemic risk, Delta CoVaR, defined as the change in the value at risk of the financial system conditional on an institution being under distress relative to its median state. Our estimates show that characteristics such as leverage, size, maturity mismatch, and asset price booms significantly predict Delta CoVaR. We also provide out-of-sample forecasts of a countercyclical, forward-looking measure of systemic risk, and show that the 2006:IV value of this measure would have predicted more than one-third of realized Delta CoVaR during the 2007-2009 financial crisis.
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  • VIS <sup>3sup> COS

    Paulino-Afonso, Ana   Sobral, David   Darvish, Behnam   Ribeiro, Bruno   Smail, Ian   Best, Philip   Stroe, Andra   Cairns, Joseph  

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  • Tending-toward-Blackness <sup>*sup>

    Copeland, Huey  

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  • Introduction <sup>†sup>

    Corradetti, Claudio  

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  • Variance stabilizing filters <sup>#sup>

    Gustafsson, Oskar   Stockhammar, Pär  

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  • VIS <sup>3sup> COS

    Paulino-Afonso, Ana   Sobral, David   Darvish, Behnam   Ribeiro, Bruno   van der Wel, Arjen   Stott, John   Buitrago, Fernando   Best, Philip   Stroe, Andra   Craig, Jessica E. M.  

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  • A <sup>2sup> CMHNE

    Hu, Jun   Qian, Shengsheng   Fang, Quan   Liu, Xueliang   Xu, Changsheng  

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  • Supervenience, Repeatability, & Expressivism <sup>*sup>

    Atiq, Emad H.  

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  • Suppression of <sup>13sup>C satellites in <sup>1sup>H DOSY spectra

    Pinelopi Moutzouri   Peter Kiraly   Mohammadali Foroozandeh   Andrew R. Phillips   Steven R. Coombes   Mathias Nilsson   Gareth A. Morris  

    Graphical abstract Highlights • Suppression of one-bond 13 C satellites reduces signal overlap. • Reduction in signal overlap facilitates DOSY analysis. • Avoids 13 C decoupling. • Useful for high dynamic range mixtures. Abstract Diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) is a valuable tool for the analysis of intact mixtures, since it can separate the signals of components according to their apparent diffusion coefficients. However, DOSY experiments are acutely sensitive to spectral quality, and especially to signal overlap, which can lead to misleading apparent diffusion coefficients. Here, we introduce a new NMR experiment to reduce signal overlap in mixtures with a wide range of concentrations, by removing one-bond 13 C satellites. In such high dynamic range mixtures, 13 C isotopomer signals from major components can overlap with signals from minor components, causing problematic distortions in the diffusion domain of a DOSY spectrum. The new method, Oneshot- i DISPEL, is a combination of the Oneshot and DISPEL experiments, and its performance has been demonstrated on a Greek alcoholic beverage, ouzo, which contains small amounts of anise flavour components and sucrose. Ethanol is a major component, and the suppression of its 13 C satellites reduces signal overlap with minor components, offering significant improvement in DOSY spectra.
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  • FrauDetector <sup>+sup>

    Ying, Josh Jia-Ching; Zhang, Ji; Huang, Che-Wei; Chen, Kuan-Ta; Tseng, Vincent S.  

    In recent years, telecommunication fraud has become more rampant internationally with the development of modern technology and global communication. Because of rapid growth in the volume of call logs, the task of fraudulent phone call detection is confronted with big data issues in real-world implementations. Although our previous work, FrauDetector, addressed this problem and achieved some promising results, it can be further enhanced because it focuses only on fraud detection accuracy, whereas the efficiency and scalability are not top priorities. Other known approaches for fraudulent call number detection suffer from long training times or cannot accurately detect fraudulent phone calls in real time. However, the learning process of FrauDetector is too time-consuming to support real-world application. Although we have attempted to accelerate the the learning process of FrauDetector by parallelization, the parallelized learning process, namely PFrauDetector, still cannot afford the computing cost. In this article, we propose a highly efficient incremental graph-mining-based fraudulent phone call detection approach, namely FrauDetectoe , which can automatically label fraudulent phone numbers with a "fraud" tag a crucial prerequisite for distinguishing fraudulent phone call numbers from nonfraudulent ones. FratiDetectoe initially generates smaller, more manageable subnetworks from original graph and performs a parallelized weighted HITS algorithm for a significant speed increase in the graph learning module. It adopts a novel aggregation approach to generate a trust (or experience) value for each phone number (or user) based on their respective local values. After the initial procedure, we can incrementally update the trust (or experience) value for each phone number (or user) while a new fraud phone number is identified. An efficient fraud-centric hash structure is constructed to support fast real-time detection of fraudulent phone numbers in the detection module. We conduct a comprehensive experimental study based on real datasets collected through an antifraud mobile application called Whoscall. The results demonstrate a significantly improved efficiency of our approach compared with FrauDetector as well as superior performance against other major classifier-based methods.
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  • Janez Janša <supsup>

    Georgelou, Konstantina  

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